Technological Unemployment in the Perspective of Industry 4.0




Industry 4.0, technological unemployment, structural unemployment, education, competences of the future


The article concerns the problem of technological unemployment in the perspective of industry 4.0  development. The purpose of the article is to indicate the positive and negative effects of industry 4.0 development and to define the ways of programming education as a way to counteract the negative effects of industry 4.0 development. The author emphasizes the need for an appropriate education curriculum, aimed at acquiring both professional and engineering competences as well as humanistic, ethical and social competences at the same time. Technological unemployment is defined as a temporary, short-term phenomenon, lasting until human capital is shifted to other applications. The lack of adequate education, including lifelong learning, creates a risk of transition from technological unemployment to structural unemployment, which is much more dangerous for economic and social reasons. The article, therefore, contains an analysis of the labor market in terms of the demand for specific competences in the perspective of industry 4.0 development and forecasts of the demand for competences of the future. There is no doubt that the development of industry 4.0 requires specialized competences combining the skills of an IT specialist and an automation / robotics specialist who has skills in the field of cyber-physical systems integration, operation of advanced production management systems and complex production data analysis systems as well as the application of artificial intelligence algorithms in the production space. At the same time, however, specialists with high communication, interpersonal and social competences will be sought, hence there is a need for appropriate education curriculum.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmad, A.R., Segaran, P.A.P. & Sapry, H.R.M. (2020). Industry revolution 4.0 and job creation for the university students. International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering, 9(3), 2968-2971.

Ali, M. (2021). Vocational students' perception and readiness in facing globalization, industry revolution 4.0 and society 5.0. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1833(1), 012050.

Afeltowicz, Ł. (2007). Czy technika pozbawia nas pracy? Bezrobocie technologiczne w perspektywie teorii Aktora – sieci. Studia Socjologiczne, 1(184), 107-126.

Ariffin, K.A.Z., & Ahmad, F.H. (2021). Indicators for maturity and readiness for digital forensic investigation in era of industrial revolution 4.0. Computers and Security, 105,102237.

Badanie stopnia automatyzacji firm w Polsce, ASTOR. (2016). In: Przemysł 4.0. Rewolucja już tu jest. Co o niej wiesz? Astor Whitepaper. Retrieved from:

Whitepaper%20-%20Przemys%C5%82%204.0.pdf (accessed on 10.05.2021).

Balog, M.M., & Demidova, S.E. (2021). Human Capital Development in the Context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 666(6), 062120.

Biała księga w sprawie sztucznej inteligencji. Europejskie podejście do doskonałości i zaufania. (2020). Retrieved from: (accessed on 10.05.2021). [in Polish]

Bigerna, S., Micheli, S., & Polinori, P. (2021). New generation acceptability towards durability and repairability of products: Circular economy in the era of the 4th industrial revolution. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 165, 120558.

Bilan, Y., Rubanov, P., Vasylieva, T., & Lyeonov, S. (2019). The influence of industry 4.0 on financial services: Determinants of alternative finance development. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 19(1), 70–93.

Bujara, M. (2017). Umarła fabryka, niech żyje fabryka. Gazeta Wyborcza, September 16-17, 2017, 24-25. [in Polish]

Dzwigol, H., Dzwigol-Barosz, M., & Kwilinski, A. (2020a). Formation of Global Competitive Enterprise Environment Based on Industry 4.0 Concept. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 24 (1), 1-5.

Dzwigol, H., Dzwigol-Barosz, M., Miśkiewicz, R., & Kwilinski, A. (2020b). Manager competency assessment model in the conditions of industry 4.0. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 7 (4), 2630-2644.

European Innovation Scoreboard 2020, European Commission - Questions and answers. Brussels, 23 June 2020. (2020). Retrieved from: (accessed on 16 May 2021)

Filatov, V., Mishakov, V., Osipenko, S., Artemyeva, S. & Kolontaevskaya, I. (2020). Industry 4.0 concept as an incentive to increase the competitiveness of the food and processing industries of the Russian Federation. E3S Web of Conferences, 208, 03040

Fobel, P., Kuzior A. (2019). The future (Industry 4.0) is closer than we think. Will it also be ethical? International Conference of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering. ICCMSE 2019, Rhodes, Greece. Eds. Simos T.E., Kalogiratou Z., Monovasilis, T. Melville: American Institute of Physics, 080003.

Grebski, M. (2021a). Comparative Analysis of Innovativeness Network in Poland and the United States Toruń: TNOIK.

Grebski, M. (2021b). Mobility of the Workforce and Its Influence on Innovativeness (Comparative Analysis of the United States and Poland). Production Engineering Archives, 27(4), 272–276.

Grebski, M., & Grebski, W. (2019). Project-based approach to engineering technology education. Production Engineering Archives, 25(25), 56–59.

Grebski, W., & Grebski, M. (2018). Keeping Higher Education Aligned with the Requirements and Expectations of the Knowledge-Based Economy. Production Engineering Archives, 21(21), 3–7.

Gu, J., Gouliamos, K., Lobonţ, O.-R. & Nicoleta-Claudia, M. (2021). Is the fourth industrial revolution transforming the relationship between financial development and its determinants in emerging economies? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 165, 120563.

Hoffmann, M.W., Malakuti, S., Grüner, S., Finster, S., Gebhardt, J., Tan, R., Schindler, T. & Gamer, T. (2021). Developing industrial cps: A multi-disciplinary challenge. Sensors 21(6), 1-28.

Keynes, J.M. (1930). Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren. Nation & Athenaeum: London, UK.

Kompetencje Zawodowe Przyszłości 2020, Institute for the Future. Retrieved from (accessed on 18 April 2021)

Koput, K. (2020). How artificial intelligence affect the labour market in Poland. Proceedings of the European Conference on the Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, ECIAIR, 197-202.

Kuzior, A. (2014a). Aksjologia zrównoważonego rozwoju, Banska Bystrica: Belianum. [in Polish]

Kuzior A. (2014b). Development of Competences Key to Sustainable Development, Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej. Organizacja i Zarządzanie, 75, 71-81.

Kuzior, A. (2021a). Development of Industry 4.0 and the issue of technological unemployment case study – Poland. In Khalid S. Soliman (Ed.), Innovation management and information technology impact on global economy in the era of pandemic of the 37th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 30-31 May 2021 (pp. 7843-7849). Cordoba, Spain: IBIMA.

Kuzior, A. (2021b). Innovation management as a tool for sustainable development and improving the quality of life of societies. In Khalid S. Soliman (Ed.), Innovation management and information technology impact on global economy in the era of pandemic of the 37th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 30-31 May 2021 (pp. 211-216). Cordoba, Spain: IBIMA.

Kuzior, A. (2017). Problem bezrobocia technologicznego w perspektywie rozwoju Przemysłu 4.0. Etyka Biznesu i Zrównoważony Rozwój, 4, 31-38. [in Polish]

Kuzior, A., & Czajkowski, W. (2021). Knowledge management in the context of sustainable development. In: Khalid S. Soliman (ed.), Proceedings of the 37th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), pp.10846-10852.

Kuzior, A., Grebski,, W., & Lyulyov, O. (2019a). Rola etyki w kształceniu inżynierów. Etyka Biznesu i Zrównoważony Rozwój, 1, 15-27.

Kuzior, A., & Kuzior, P. (2020). The quadruple helix model as a smart city design principle. Virtual Economics, 3 (1), 39-57.

Kuzior, A., Kwilinski, A., & Tkachenko, V. (2019b). Sustainable development of organizations based on the combinatorial model of artificial intelligence. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 7(2), 1353-1376.

Kuzior, A., & Zozulak, J. (2019). Adaptation of the Idea of Phronesis in Contemporary Approach to Innovation. Management Systems in Production Engineering, 27(2), 84-87.

Kwilinski, A., & Kuzior, A. (2020). Cognitive Technologies in the Management and Formation of Directions of the Priority Development of Industrial Enterprises. Management Systems in Production Engineering, 28(2), 133-138.

Kwilinski, A., Tkachenko, V., & Kuzior, A. (2019). Transparent cognitive technologies to ensure sustainable society development. Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues, 9(2), 561-570.

Kwilinski, A., Vyshnevskyi, O., & Dzwigol, H. (2020). Digitalization of the EU Economies and People at Risk of Poverty or Social Exclusion. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(7), 142.

Kwilinski, A., Dalevska, N., & Dementyev, V. V. (2022). Metatheoretical Issues of the Evolution of the International Political Economy. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 15(3), 124.

Lei, W., Soong, A.C.K., Jianghua, L., Yong, W., Classon, B., Xiao, W., Mazzarese, D., Yang, Z., & Saboorian, T. (2021). 5G Industrial IoT. Wireless Networks, 515-532.

Mejssner, B. (2015). Komu grozi technologiczne bezrobocie. Computerworld, 10. [in Polish]

Miśkiewicz, R. (2019a). Organisational Structure in the Process of Integration on the Example of Iron and Steel Industry Enterprises in Poland: Process Digitisation in the Industry 4.0. Concept. Warszawa: PWN.

Miśkiewicz, R. (2019b). Challenges facing management practice in the light of Industry 4.0: The example of Poland. Virtual Economics, 2 (2), 37-47.

Miśkiewicz, R., & Wolniak, R. (2020). Practical Application of the Industry 4.0 Concept in a Steel Company. Sustainability, 12 (14), 5776.

Novakova, L. (2020). The impact of technology development on the future of the labour market in the Slovak Republic. Technology in Society, 62, 101256. 10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101256

Polska Platforma Przyszłości. (2021). Retrieved from (accessed on 16 May 2021).

Popkova, E.G., & Zmiyak, K.V. (2019). Priorities of training of digital personnel for industry 4.0: social competencies vs technical competencies. On the Horizon, 27(3-4), 138-144.

Putilo, N.V., Volkova, N.S. & Antonova, N.V. (2020). Robotization in the area of labor and employment: On the verge of the fourth industrial revolution. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 1100 AISC, 60-75.

Strategia na rzecz Odpowiedzialnego Rozwoju do roku 2020 (z perspektywą do 2030 r.) Dokument przyjęty uchwałą Rady Ministrów Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w dniu 14 lutego 2017 r. (2020). Retrieved from: (accessed on 16 August 2021). [in Polish]

Raport: Przemysł 4.0 w Polsce – rewolucja czy ewolucja? (2020). Deloitte. Retrieved from: (accessed on 18 August 2021)

Raport: Przemysł 4.0 w Polsce. (2021). Retrieved from: (accessed on 18 August 2021).

Rewolucja Umiejętności 4.0. Czy roboty potrzebują ludzi?”. (2021). Retrieved from: (accessed on 18 August 2021)

Rifkin, J. (1995). The end of work: the decline of the global labor force and the dawn of the post-market era. New York: Putnam Publishing Group.

Xiong, X. (2021). Bring technology home and stay healthy: The role of fourth industrial revolution and technology in improving the efficacy of health care spending. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 165,120556.

Pracownik przyszłości. (2019). Infuture Hatalska Foresight Institute. Gdańsk. Retrieved from:

d/pracownik-przyszlosci/pracownik_przyszlosci_2019infuturesamsung.pdf (accessed on 16 May 2021)

Rubanov, P., Lieonov, S., Bilan, Y., & Liulov, O. (2019). The Fintech sector as a driver of private entrepreneurship development in time of industry 4.0. Conference proceedings: The Impact of Industry 4.0 on Job Creation, 319-327.

Shvindina, H. (2017). Innovations of strategic management development: from competition to coopetition. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 1, 180-192.

Singh, H. (2021). Big data, industry 4.0 and cyber-physical systems integration: A smart industry context. Materials Today: Proceedings, 46, 157-162.

Sobotka, B. (2020). Kompetencje jutra, czyli czego przyszłość będzie wymagała od naszych dzieci. Warszawa: OSMpower.

Szabó-Szentgróti, G., Végvári, B., & Varga, J. (2021). Impact of industry 4.0 and digitization on labor market for 2030-Verification of Keynes’ Prediction. Sustainability, 13(14), 7703.

Tkachenko, V., Kuzior, A., & Kwilinski, A. (2019). Introduction of artificial intelligence tools into the training methods of entrepreneurship activities. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 22(6), 1-10. Retrieved from (accessed on 16 May 2021)

Ulewicz, R.б & Sethanan, K. (2019). Quality of Educational Services–Industry 4.0 Requirements. In 20th International Symposium on Quality. QUALITY – YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW, March 20th-22nd (pp. 137-149). Pula, Croatia: CABI.

Vyshnevskyi, O., Liashenko, V., & Amosha, O. (2019). The impact of Industry 4.0 and AI on economic growth. Zeszyty Naukowe. Organizacja i Zarządzanie, 140, 391-400.




How to Cite

Kuzior, A. (2022). Technological Unemployment in the Perspective of Industry 4.0. Virtual Economics, 5(1), 7–23.